Monday, March 16, 2020
Stunned, Astounded and Astonished Stunned, Astounded and Astonished Stunned, Astounded and Astonished By Maeve Maddox stun: c.1300, to daze or render unconscious (from a blow, powerful emotion, etc.), probably aphetic of O.Fr. estoner to stun astound: 1600, from M.E. astouned, astoned (c.1300), pp. of astonien to stun astonish: 1340, astonien, from O.Fr. estoner to stun, from V.L. *extonare, from L. ex- out + tonare to thunder; so, lit. to leave someone thunderstruck. Although all three words derive from the same source, each has a different connotation in English. Stun seems to carry the strongest emotional punch, perhaps because it has only one syllable, but also because it has a literal meaning. The other two words are always used figuratively. (IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never seen the word Ã¢â¬Å"astonishÃ¢â¬ used to describe the effect of a literal lightning strike.) Astound and astonish suggest amazement, but the surprise engendered is not necessarily accompanied by the emotional pain suggested by the word stun. He was astounded by the bureaucrats stupidity. They were astonished by the magicians illusions. He was stunned by the unexpected death of his wife. The following headlines and captions from the web got me thinking about these words: Tendulkar stunned at his wax likeness Israel stunned at US firmness on freezing settlements Richard Dreyfuss Stunned at Natashas Accident Twilights Lefevre stunned at loss of role Crowds Stunned at Jacksons Death What first caught my attention was the use of the preposition Ã¢â¬Å"atÃ¢â¬ after stun instead of the usual Ã¢â¬Å"by.Ã¢â¬ The use of Ã¢â¬Å"atÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"byÃ¢â¬ has the effect of distancing the emotion. The metaphor is one of being hit over the head. One isnÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬Å"stunned at a hammer,Ã¢â¬ but Ã¢â¬Å"stunned by a hammer.Ã¢â¬ One is stunned by bad news, not Ã¢â¬Å"atÃ¢â¬ it. My second observation was that in at least two of the headlines, either astounded or astonished would have been the more appropriate choice. As a general rule, IÃ¢â¬â¢d save the word stun for a truly tragic context and use astound and astonish to convey extreme surprise. As for the use of stunning in inappropriate contexts, hereÃ¢â¬â¢s what David Auburn has to say in the Oxford American WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Thesaurus (p. 861): stunning is probably the most overused synonym for Ã¢â¬Å"very good,Ã¢â¬ especially in movie ads and book blurbs . . . Use of the word in this context has become not only an empty clichÃ ©, but also annoyingly counterintuitive: wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t you be more likely to feel stunned by something bad than by something good? Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:How to Format a US Business LetterExpanded and ExtendedThrew and Through
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Can low fee schools successfully mimic the language policies of their elite counterparts 1.Abstract: In the Pakistani society, the English language has earned a prestigious place more in the minds of the people than it is in effect. The ability to speak English is what a layman would use to differentiate between educated and uneducated citizens. As much as learning English is a matter of earning respect at your workplace or the society in general, over time it has become the most important language in Pakistan taking over as the official language and the means for all or most business correspondences. Acting accordingly, the government made English language learning compulsory in all schools. This escalated to the point when English became the medium of examination at intermediate levels and above for most subjects. What this implied was that basic knowledge of the English language or more accurately, the ability to read, write and comprehend English is a basic necessity for students. This, however, did not go well with schooling structure at primary and secondary levels as governm ent schools could not afford or provide quality English teachers. It is arguable that this was one of the major reasons why the private schooling systems received a massive bloom in the society. With their relatively much higher fees, they could fill up that vacuum and provide what could be considered a quality education Ã¢â¬â an English based education. The Pakistani society now faced a new dilemma. Private schools were too expensive but government schools were not good enough. For the underprivileged, who still wanted what in their minds was a necessary quality education, the next venue that opened up was of the low-fee private schools. Mimicking the structure and curricular setup of Ã¢â¬Å"high-feeÃ¢â¬ private schools on a low profile, these schools promised to bring the same quality and standard of education and English learning at a much lower price, instantly attracting a large economic class of customers. The delusion that both these institutions and their customers ind ulge themselves in is that anything cheap can match up in quality. Low fees mean low salaries for teachers which consequently mean sub-standard teaching. The best way to describe these schools would be a blend where the problem with government schools is not entirely solved, but they managed to cover it up to an extent where there customers could be satisfied. What was completely overlooked by local schooling systems was the social lives of children and exactly how much their interaction with English was going to be. The popular culture introduced by the high-fee schools and later copied into the low fee schools was to begin the childÃ¢â¬â¢s schooling with the English language i.e. the first thing he has to learn at school is English. Considering how English is always going to be a second language, this approach is highly questionable. An alternate approach that is rarely practiced in Pakistan would have been to begin education in the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s mother tongue and after a ce rtain level of proficiency in that language Ã¢â¬â or more precisely, after they have passed their critical periods, they could have been introduced to English. This of course comes with public displeasure as the views on English described above are hard fastened. Parents and teachers alike seem unwilling to try out the new strategy as in their minds the basic or foremost purpose of education is to learn English and what better way than to get right into it from the beginning. In this research, we aimed to see exactly how fruitful the current approach to learning English has been in two distinct socio-economic classes. For this purpose, a test that would examine the childÃ¢â¬â¢s basic understanding of and expression in the English language was devised. Students of grades 3 to 5 were given a series of pictures, and they were asked to describe and explain them in English Key-Words: Elite Schools, Low-Fee schools, Proficiency in English, Mother-tongue, Urdu, Middle-Class Families, Upper-Class Environment, Alien Language, Language Policy, Schools in Pakistan, English. 2.Theoretical Framework This research focuses on the effectiveness of School Policy in the development of proficiency in English; and the impact the budget of said schools has on the implementation of the said policies. It also considers feasibility of low-tier schools mimicking the policies of their elite counterparts, and whether these policies sit in with the socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds of students. 3.Case Study 1: High-fee private schools: 3.1 Introduction WeÃ¢â¬â¢re not defining what we classify exactly as a Ã¢â¬Å"high feesÃ¢â¬ , but schools examined generally charged a total of between 18000 and 30000 for a quarter with four quarters of schooling. Target customers for these schools include a wide range of households from wealthy businessmen to the settled working class Ã¢â¬â and economically speaking, middle-class and all above. This range includes what one would call the Ã¢â¬Å"eliteÃ¢â¬ schools and those that generally aspire to be so. Considering again the families that avail these institutions, in the urban areas of Punjab where this research was targeted, one could say that the children are orphaned in the heritage of their mother tongue. The parents normally themselves educated will not use said language in their household instead opting for the more Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬ Urdu. At the same time, parents make as best of an effort as they can to indulge the child in the use of English since an ear ly age. Among the first words the child learns in these households would be common nouns, verbs and counting in English. Conveniently enough for these children, the two languages taught in all schools at primary level and the basic medium of instruction are English and Urdu. Another factor in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development in the use of English outside of school would be the television. For said households and economic classes, the provision of a television set is a basic necessity. Not only does it become the main source of entertainment, it also becomes the growing childÃ¢â¬â¢s friend and teacher. With much of this source of entertainment i.e. cartoons being in English, it is deducible that the average child from these households is well equipped in the use and understanding of English; much to the delight of the educational institutions under consideration. What this means is that English being a medium of instruction since day one does not become a big issue as a second langua ge for these children and with the right curriculum, schools can capitalize on these grounds to fulfil their promise of Ã¢â¬Å"a quality educationÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â an English-medium education. Still, it must not be forgotten that the above scenario has used a lot of generalizations and has painted the picture with a thick brush. Even among these institutions, there would be students who would not grasp a second language so early in their life, and eventually suffer. Not only do they fail to use or understand the English, they inadvertently suffer in all their subjects as the examinations as with the medium of instruction are in English. Of course, under the pressure of their parents and the school, what this means is that they will eventually resort to wrote learning until a much later stage of their life when they can finally get a grasp of the language they had been subjugated to their whole lives. The policy of adopting English language teaching from nursery or kindergarten would have then failed. So while the institution lives up to its promise of providing quality English based learning to some or most of its students, it would have failed to do so equally and create a distinct education barrier among its generation which would define these children for the rest of their lives. In this part of the research, three high-fee private schools in the cities of Lahore and Sargodha were examined. The test described on the abstract above was conducted and some teachers and principals were interviewed to obtain their opinions in the matter. 3.2 English teaching policies and methodology English language teaching begins the day the child enters the school. While the curriculum may be restricted to alphabets and numbers or the written script, a lot of focus goes into the spoken prospect. Teachers encourage students to speak in English, while they themselves use it as much as possible to enhance the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding. Storytelling and reading picture books has become part of the curriculum. The child learns to say common words and general sentences in his first year or so. Slowly, he would have to conduct all communication on campus in English and mostly this is part of schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s education policyÃ¢â¬âdiscourage the use of any language other than English in the school. At the primary level, the curriculum includes stories for reading practices and creative writings are introduced as early as grade one to get the child to be able to express himself. This of course will now go hand in hand with lessons on grammar, sentence structure and such all the way till the end of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ secondary level schooling. By the time the students reach the first grade, it is imperative though that they can at least read, write and understand English to some extent, as every other subject in his course will now be in English. So by making it a necessity to virtually attend school beyond this point, these schools make English language learning the most important part of their curriculum, especially before this point in time. Realizing this, both teachers and parents put the most of their efforts in this subject in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s grooming years Ã¢â¬â the critical period. 3.3 Teachers and School Principals We asked two principals and one English teacher from these high-fee schools about how they teach their students an alien language and what they think about the alternate approach Ã¢â¬â not teaching a second language until a child has crossed their critical period. Some excerpts are included below: Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a commendable theory, but looking at our students, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel like we need to change anything. Most of our students in 8th grade and onwards in fact feel more comfortable with English than with Urdu when it comes to writing. I think this is a sign that things are going the right way and our approach in their primary schooling has paid off. Yes, maybe it undermines their abilities in their mother tongue, but objectively speaking, these children will need English a lot more later on in their lives and as a teacher, IÃ¢â¬â¢d want my students to be out there with the best. Make a name for themselves and achieve great things and in the global world that we are today, English is the most basic tool for success no matter what field these students go to.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âPrincipal 1 Ã¢â¬Å"We try to make learning as fun we can. I mean, these children are no older than my kids so I know what this age means for children. And I tell you, I feel happy when I see these kids actually excited to come to school. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how it should be. And they enjoy their time with English as well. I tell them they have to speak in English even when it is not English class because they have to try to actually be comfortable with it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢ll take time, and every class they make a ruckus telling me Ã¢â¬Å"MaÃ¢â¬â¢am, Bashir spoke in Urdu yesterday. MaÃ¢â¬â¢am Saira doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t speak in English. MaÃ¢â¬â¢am he just said a word in Urdu.Ã¢â¬ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s amusing. I help them of course, telling them how to communicate and such. They tell me what they want to say or write and I help them translate that to English. Thes e children are quick learners by the way. I think theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll get a good hang of it by the end of the year. I hope (chuckles).Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âTeacher Ã¢â¬Å"It would be too late by then. I mean, first off thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no definite time when you can say that, Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, now theyÃ¢â¬â¢re proficient enough in Urdu, letÃ¢â¬â¢s start teaching them English.Ã¢â¬ Even if we do, that would be about sixth or fifth grade right? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s too late and it would be too chaotic. All this time theyÃ¢â¬â¢re studying subjects in Urdu, giving exams in Urdu, then we introduce a new language, teach it to them first, then convert all their knowledge in English, make them take all examinations in English, because at the end, whenever they sit in centralized examinations, they need to be able to do that. Maybe if you change the whole educational structure, itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s too much work and too much risk really. I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t take that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âPrincipal 2 3.4 Observation of ResultsÃ¢â¬âQuestionnaire: In general, students showed a good understanding of the pictures given to them, and even managed to produce creative responses to them. Errors in spelling, sentence structure and grammar were common, but most students were able to convey their thoughts properly. As mentioned in the introduction, there were clear distinctions among these students of those were lagging far behind the rest of their peers, especially towards the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum within this category. 4.Case Study 2: Low-fee private schools 4.1 Introduction Similar to earlier case study, the range of fee for these schools was taken to be less than Rs. 18,000 per quarter year of education. Most of PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s student body falls into these schools, as government institutes also lie within this fee range. The family backgrounds of the students here are very similarÃ¢â¬âwhere there is little to no use of English outside the school. The daily life of students heavily feature the use of mother tongue, even that in the regional dialect. Similarly, the fee structure of these schools restricts the talent they can hire for their students; ultimately reducing the efficiency of the environment built inside the campus. The requirements that the families demand from these schools are very different than those of elite schools. Here education is seen as means to a job and eventually setting up a new earning source for the house. Considering the relatively milder diversity in the students of schools falling into this tier, the ir non-productive and productive hobbies also tend to be alike. This means that almost the entirety of media consumed is in non-English format including, but not limited to movies, dramas, and music. Ultimately, it means that both inside and outside school environment lack the need and actual use of English Language. It then, unfortunately, becomes a status symbol and is rejected sometimes on the basis of, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not for us, leave it for the people with moneyÃ¢â¬ . 4.2 English Teaching Policies and Interviews Copying the structure and curricula from their elite counterparts, these schools introduce English language as a subject as early as grade 1, but pre-school and nursery level classes as well teach the language. Likewise, the official medium of instruction and hence most basic courses are taught in English. But unlike the students in our previous case study, these are not well equipped with English beforehand and even as part of schooling will find little interaction with the new language. Coupled with the quality of teachers available, the schooling is eventually done entirely in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s mother tongue, and these students have a much harder time getting a grip on the English language. 4.3 Teachers and School Principals We asked two principals from these low-fee schools about their English policies and what they think about the alternate approach Ã¢â¬â not teaching a second language until a child has crossed their critical period. They are included below: Ã¢â¬Å"Our schools are trying to compete with all these other elites out there (names a few schools for effect). I think youÃ¢â¬â¢re underestimating the abilities of these common children. They are as capable of learning English as the more privileged class. And I think to learn anything you have to give maximum exposure to the children in this age Ã¢â¬â this is their learning age. I know itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why weÃ¢â¬â¢re here; to give them the same opportunities as those who God gave more status in this world. We are the ones who are trying to bring this society back to level grounds. You need English to study at prestigious institutions, to learn the computer, use the internet, even rea d instruction papers on products you use. Not knowing English from an early stage in your life renders you handicapped.Ã¢â¬ It will be appropriate to mention that the below interview was translated from Urdu and that the interviewee has qualifications in and has been a former teacher in Urdu and Islamiyat for intermediate level students before becoming principal. Ã¢â¬Å"All the schools need to do this actually (not teach English in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s critical period). Our children are forgetting the value and prestige of their local languages. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s tear-jerking to see our youth so profound in a foreign language and yet they canÃ¢â¬â¢t hold even a proper conversation in Urdu? And IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been telling the committee that they need to do something about this as well. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s just rotten how weÃ¢â¬â¢re forcing things they donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand down their throat. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t learning. I tell my staff to communicate with them in Urdu or Punjabi when explaining so at least theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll keep track of what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re learning. Then maybe someday when they can properly understand English it can all fall into place. But even if this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the case even if they do perfectly understand English maybe some now or some generations later, the problem is that we need to teach them to be proud of their culture and heritage, and we canÃ¢â¬â¢t do that unless we make it hold some importance in their lives. If our government and society make our local languages completely irrelevant outside of homes, these education boards and committees will continue to give English more importanceÃ¢â¬ 4.4 Observation of Results: When the questionnaires were given to the elite school students, the response was quite up to the mark. These children had a very good understanding of the language and its correct usage. They were able to answer the questionnaires themselves with little or no help from the faculty members or our team. On the other hand, most students belonging to low-tier schools, showed a huge amount dependency on teachers or us to even attempt the given tests. With this it was evident that despite passing through the primary phase of their education, they had not developed enough proficiency or confidence in English to be independent in its use. Moreover, the results that we did finally obtain painted a worse picture. Mistakes in spelling, vocabulary and general use of words, phrases and sentences were overwhelming to the point where it made most answers impossible to comprehend. Another distinctive feature was the attention paid to handwriting. Unlike their counter-par ts in this research, students from low-fee schools were a lot more conscious about their handwriting and even rewrote answers by tracing over a rough erasable draft. Students of high-fee schools had relatively free reigns in this regard and consequently, generally poorer handwriting. 5.Conclusion: Should low tier schools provide their English education as the elite schools? The question is still a hot debate in terms of education standards all over the country. Where the elite, high tier schools clam to provide a very good standard English education, they charge a fee that is not affordable to every family in the country. Most of the families are middle class and consequently are unable to pay the high fees of these schools due to which they turn to low tier schools which promise the same standard education as the elite schools, but in affordable fees. But how is such an educational equality even possible? When the budget of such schools is not as high as the elite schools so are their services. Less fees means less pay for teachers and so a lower English standard. The teachers are less qualified, less interested in teaching the students and so are the results. The students therefore are not as good as those of the high-level schools. When we checked the results, we came to a clear conclusion that even for the same grade and age groups, the response of children in elite schools was far better than those in these low fees affordable schools. While the students in elite schools were proficient in both oral and written usage of the English much better than what is expected from a second language, their counterparts studying in less privileged school systems had responses full of errors and mistakes. Apart from the standard the schools are providing, the children in low level schools usually come from a social class that is less concerned with the standard of education and more with the job acquiring ambitions. This ultimately leads to the low standard of education of such students. All in all, we have reached a conclusion that schools that try to mimic the education standards of high level schools are not in the least bit providing the education standard that they promise. Their students are receiving a low standard education and are less inclined to perfec t their English as their counterparts that are studying in more privileged environments.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Mid-term question - Assignment Example The two main factors that many authors have identified to affect the United States national security have been the non-state actors and the transnational organizational crimes. Non-state actors refer to organizations that have power and influence on both national and international level. The non-state actors do not associate themselves with any particular state. According to Hough, in his book Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding the global securityÃ¢â¬ he discusses the non-state actors and the trouble and turmoil they have caused to many states around the globe for many years.1 Hough identifies non-state actors as the major issue that has threatened the global security.2 The national security of the United States has been affected by the emerging non-state actors around the globe. Most of these non-state actors are military-oriented thus being referred to as non-state military groups. The most common non-state military groups include nationalists, religious groups with strong beliefs, Marxist, fascist and armed pressure groups. The United States has fallen victims of some of these groups such as nationalists, religious groups such as Christianity and Islam and armed p ressure groups. According to Hough, these non-state actors have impacted the national security of the United States negatively by killing the American people, destroying the Americans property.3 This has led to the destabilization of the United States government since it exposes the security loop holes and the incompetence of the leaders. The United States gained its independent through the battles fought by the nationalists, and they gained the independence. The spirit of nationalism has never died in the United States, and this poses a threat to the national security. The religious groups such as Islam and Christianity related have affected the security of the United States and caused a
Saturday, February 1, 2020
How Stress Affects The Immune System and Overall Health - Research Paper Example This weakness of body defenses against stress may end up creating negative outcomes on the physical, mental, internal and psychological health of people (Oxington 2005, p. 174). Stress also plays a vital role in changing and affecting immune system of human beings. This paper further analyzes how stress affects human beingsÃ¢â¬â¢ overall health and immune system. A number of studies suggest that immune system is highly susceptible to stress and related issues. The effects on immune system are intense enough to reduce the effective of the system and consequently making human body more prone to illnesses. Stress hormones which are released in the bloodstream restrain the immune system to work efficiently and normally which in turn results in higher risks of illness. Psychoneuroimmunology is the study area of health psychology which mainly deals with the issues related to psychology and their effects on the immune system. Stress related issues and their influence on immune system form s a major area of research and discussion in this field. Research indicates that external stressors can be involved in the immune system in a number of different manners (Passer & Smith 2006, p 493). One way is the eviction of a variety of chemicals by extended fibers from the brain into lymph tissues. These chemicals bind to receptors of white blood cell and consequently affect the working efficiency of immune system. Moreover, stress hormones like cortisol and epinephrine, also bind to the cells affecting the overall immune system functioning. An effort to cope up with the stressors at times results in inappropriate behavioral patterns like substance abuse and insufficient sleep time which damages immunity (taylor 2006). In a healthy heart it is seen that a series of event occurs to pump blood out of the heart to the different parts of body. Cardiac Cycle consists of Atrial Systole, Atrial Diastole, Ventricular Systole and Ventricular Diastole. Systole in general is used for the c ontraction of heart muscles and diastole is used for the relaxation of the heart muscles. Atrial Diastole occurs when the atrial muscles relax and Ventricular Diastole happens when the ventricular muscles relax (Hall et al., 2011). Similarly Ventricular Systole occurs when the ventricular muscles contract and atrial systole occurs when the atrial muscles contract. Systole of 120mm Hg is considered to be excellent along with a Diastolic pressure of 80. Systolic pressure of 130 with Diastolic pressure of 85 is fair. Above this pressure it can be said that the pressures are poor. However the worst condition can be when the Systolic Pressure reaches 180 mm Hg and the Diastolic pressure reaches 110 respectively. Stress and sudden emergencies result in Ã¢â¬Å"secretion of excess adrenaline and noradrenaline, which causes sudden and considerable elevation in systolic blood pressureÃ¢â¬ (Khan 2005, p. 178) Blood pressure and stress are related directly or indirectly. Researchers have fou nd that stress either directly or indirectly plays a role in increasing the blood pressure. Stress causes an individual to go through an unhealthy routine and this may cause several hormones to be released. These hormones then cause constriction of vessels which would raise the blood pressure in an individual. Hence it can be said that blood pressure and stress are somehow related. It is commonly believed that high blood
Friday, January 24, 2020
Terrorism: Cause and Responses Answer 1 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Our world has been a victim of terrorism and terrorist acts since the civilized human life began on this planet. There have been radicals and extremists who have been unhappy about something or the other all along during the development of our world. It can be seen that the ways how these people terrorized the world has changed along with time. Terrorists have always used the path of violence to get their voice heard to the world. With the technological innovations these groups also adapted their means of violence. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the examples of the traditional terrorist group (which I must clear that any Indian would not believe it to be a terrorist group but at the time was labeled as a terrorist group) was Hindustan (Indian) Republican Association in India. The whole world knows that India got its independence by following the path directed by Mahatma Gandhi of non-violence, but not many people know that even during the time of Gandhi India did see some brave soldiers like Chandrashekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and many more young generation people who formed groups to fight against the British government. These people were called terrorists by the British government during that time. One of the most famous groups of that time was Hindustan (Indian) Republican Association (HRA) and Bhagat Singh was one of the most active members of group. Before Bhagat Singh joined HRA the activities and the purpose of this group was unknown to the general public of India and that was one of the main reasons that even the population of India thought that this group was a terrorist organization, but everything changed after Bhagat Singh joined HRA. Bhagat Singh was a well educated man who believed in communism. He studied the writings of the anarchist leader Bakunin, some thing of the father of communism Marx, but more of Lenin, Trotsky and others who had succeeded in bringing about a revolution in their country. For Bhagat Singh the decisive break came in the post-1926 period when the Hindustan Republican Association leadership fell on his shoulders. He lost no time in articulating the necessity of having a political ideology and that was to be Marxism. In 1928, Bhagat Singh also had the responsibility of the Hindustan Republican Association with Chandra Shekhar A... ...ocracy. On the other end the radical Islamic groups are not at all confined to their own country; they are more interested in spreading the word of Islam in the whole world. Ã¢â¬âThe Islamic groups would indulge in terrorist act towards their own country only when it is necessary. Ã¢â¬âThe other big difference is the highly sophisticated training camps that the radical Islamic groups use is not that easily available to the right wing groups. Ã¢â¬âThe funding in case of the right wing groups is limited and does not have any support from their own government or the people. Ã¢â¬âOne of the most important goals of the radical Islamic terrorist groups is the formation of a coalition of all loosely-affiliated Islamic groups and countries and spread the word of Islam in the world. On the other hand there is not much of a connection between different right wing American terrorist groups amongst themselves. The reason behind the right wing American terrorist groups and the radical Islamic terrorist groups to be different might be that their final goals are different from each other. Some of their methods of beliefs might be similar but except that the final goals of both the groups do not match.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Moral Law Vs. Natural Law Ã¢â¬Å"At the dramatic center of The Scarlet Letter is the idea of the awesomeness and inescapability of the Moral Law, to which all else is finally submitted,Ã¢â¬ (Levy 384). Assuming that Hawthorne wrote The Scarlet Letter exploring the relationship between Moral law and Natural law, he chooses the moral laws to be absolute. Using definitions of nature and character provided by Seymour Katz applied to the terms natural law and moral law allow an extension of Leo LevyÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that Moral laws are supreme. Moral law is an internalization of normalizing aspects of society it, Ã¢â¬Å"is acquired in time through nurture, education, and social experience. The older the individual the more fixed and stable is his character, and the less likely he is to act outside of the principles of his society or his role,Ã¢â¬ (Katz 5). The natural law is being in a condition where society cannot impose any rules or laws, Ã¢â¬Å"It is undirected impulse or potential energy which the individual will expend and express in various ways in the course of his life,Ã¢â¬ (4). By applying the definitions of natural law and moral law to the way Hawthorne reveals the truth in the novel and to the development of the character Pearl, Hawthorne proves that moral law is the dominant form of law in The Scarlet Letter. In the forest natural laws should be supreme. Here, the black man or devil makes his home, Mistress Hibbons goes to perform her witchcraft, and Hester and Dimmesdale commit their adultery (Hawthorne 144-145). Moral law forbids each of these three things. Only in the forest, a place where moral law does not apply, can any of these things happen. From a very early age people are taught by the moral laws that the forest contains evil. Ã¢â¬Å"But she fancied me asleep when she was talking of it. She said that a thousand and a thousand people had met him here, and had written in his book, and have his mark on them. And that ugly-tempered lady, Old Mistress Hibbons, was one. And, mother, the old dame said that this scarlet letter was the Black ManÃ¢â¬â¢s mark on thee, and that it glows like a red flame when thou meetest him at midnight, here in the dark wood.Ã¢â¬ (126) Pearl, at the age of seven, already understands the forest contains evil. This normalizing aspect of moral law teaches the society that the representation of naturalÃ law, the forest, is evil. Thus, the moral laws quickly gain an advantage over the natural, before an individual is old enough to form their own opinion on the matter. Another way the moral law proves to be supreme is when examining another theme in the text, hypocrisy. The hypocrisy is so wide spread, even the Reverend Dimmesdale, introduced possessing an, Ã¢â¬Å"eloquence and religious fervor [having] already given the earnest of high eminence in his profession,Ã¢â¬ (48). This quality combined with a, Ã¢â¬Å"dewy purity of thought, which, as many people said, affected them like the speech of an angel,Ã¢â¬ (48) caused Dimmesdale to be perceived as a model of purity and godliness for his congregation despite committing a sin incomprehensible to them. Even after his confession his society does not believe the truth that Dimmesdale committed adultery. This shows how strong the character of Dimmesdale is imagined to be by his people. Because the truth is often obscured by hypocrisy, where the truth is found there will be a very strong reflection on the relationship between moral law, and natural law. In the forest, when Pearl asks Hester what the scarlet letter means and why she wears it, Hester lies to her child for the first time. Ã¢â¬Å"What does the letter mean, mother? -and why dost thou wear it?Ã¢â¬ Ã ¦.And as for the scarlet letter, I wear it for the sake of its gold thread! In all the seven bygone years, Hester Prynne had never before been false to the symbol on her bosom,Ã¢â¬ (123). Hester lies to her child for the first time while they are in the forest because she is taught to be ashamed of her sin by the moral laws. These laws have a far-reaching power; their effect is felt even in the forest, the idealization of natural law. The truth about ChillingworthÃ¢â¬â¢s character reveals itself at the strongpoint of moral laws, the scaffold. This device serves as the deterrent for criminals where they are displayed for the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s entertainment. Ã¢â¬Å"In fact, this scaffold constituted a portion of the penal machineÃ¢â¬ Ã ¦but was held, in the old time, to be as effectual an agent in the promotion of good citizenship, as ever was the guillotine among the terrorists of FranceÃ¢â¬ , (41). The scaffold punishes people for crimes committed violating the moralÃ laws by exposing the perpetrator to public ignominy. The true nature of ChillingworthÃ¢â¬â¢s character is revealed while Dimmesdale, Hester, and Pearl are performing a midnight vigil on the scaffold. Ã¢â¬Å"To his features, as to all other objects the meteoric light imparted a new expression; or it might well be that the physician was not careful then, as at all other times, to hide the malevolence with which he looked upon his victimÃ¢â¬ , (107). This revelation occurs at the pinnacle of the puritan penal system, the enforcing agent of all moral laws. Even though the Ã¢â¬Å"meteoric lightÃ¢â¬ might be interpreted as an act of nature, this is not the case. It comes from the heavens where the puritan society acquires the religious justification to carry out their laws. Thus the moral law is responsible for providing the truth to the reader in this instance. Another symbol coming from the forest are the Indians. They live in the forest and only periodically come under the jurisdiction of moral laws by entering a city or town. Because of this their actions and ideas can be interpreted to represent the position of natural law. In the instance when they interpret the meaning of the scarlet letter during the election day sermon their interpretation that, Ã¢â¬Å"the wearer of this brilliantly embroidered badge must needs be a personage of high dignity among her peopleÃ¢â¬ , (167) is the exact opposite of what the symbol was originally intended to mean. The symbol for nature in this case considers the scarlet letter a boon. In contrast, the scarlet letter was originally intended to be a punishment having the Ã¢â¬Å"effect of a spell, taking her out of ordinary relations with humanity, and inclosing her in a sphere by herselfÃ¢â¬ . (40) This was the original function, which the moral law dictated the letter should serve. Although the letter comes to symbolize many different things throughout the text, the only one, which is relevant to examine, is the one it was intended for. Because the moral and natural laws dictate different meaning upon the scarlet letter, one positive and one negative, which one is actually the dominant meaning? The negative meaning is the dominant one; this is because the letter serves its original purpose separating Hester from her society. She lived in a house on the outskirts of the town, not in it and whenever she was in public her fellow citizens would form circles around her. The letter is a negative symbol throughout every part of theÃ novel barring the conclusion, and because of this the moral laws succeeded in imposing their meaning upon the letter. Another conflict between moral and natural comes in the upbringing of Pearl, HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter. She is similar to a wild spirit and is ostracized from society similar to Hester. Ã¢â¬Å"Pearl was a born outcast of the infantile world. An imp of evil, emblem and product of sin, she had no right among christened infantsÃ¢â¬ , (65). She was never part of her society, failing to adhere to moral laws. As a child, she had no conception of the moral laws and acted accordingly. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËThe little baggage hath witchcraft in her, I professÃ¢â¬â¢, said [Mr. Wilson] to Mr. Dimmesdale. Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÅ"She needs no old womanÃ¢â¬â¢s broomstick to fly withal.'Ã¢â¬ (80). In addition to the fact that the upright citizen Mr. Wilson compares Pearl to a witch, she did not understand her religion stating, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËHe did not send me!Ã¢â¬â¢ cried she, positively. Ã¢â¬Å"I have no Heavenly Father!'Ã¢â¬ (68). By not understanding religion she was not abiding by the moral laws. While still a child Pearl is unaffected by the moral laws but as she grows older she begins to adhere to them. By the end of the novel she is entirely assimilated into the moral culture. She had taken a husband and was living a typical life in Europe (177). By taking a husband she is adhering to the moral laws. While she began her life following the natural laws they eventually were overpowered by the pervasiveness of the moral. The moral laws are so powerful she could not resist their influence. Another assertion of the power of the moral laws in relation to Pearl occurs during the forest scene spanning chapters sixteen through nineteen. Here: Hester, Dimmesdale, and Pearl meet for the first time after the scaffold scene. During these chapters Hester takes off her scarlet letter to prove to Dimmesdale that they can be free of the present situation if they go somewhere else in the world (137). Once Pearl sees her mother without the letter she immediately does not recognize her and becomes scared. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËI see what ails the child,Ã¢â¬â¢ whispered Hester to the clergyman, and turning pale in spite of a strong effort to conceal her trouble and annoyance. Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÅ"Children will not abide any, the slightest, change in the accustomed aspect of things that are daily before their eyes. Pearl misses somethingÃ which she has always seen me wear!'Ã¢â¬ (142) Even in the forest where natural laws reign, Pearl will not approach her mother without Hester wearing the scarlet letter, the symbol the moral laws imposed upon her. The moral laws extend far beyond the edges of towns and cities expanding even into the forest. Hawthorne rejects natural laws by asserting the dominant position and influence of the moral laws. By noticing when and how Hawthorne offers the truth to the reader such as when Hester lied to Pearl in the forest setting or when ChillingworthÃ¢â¬â¢s character is revealed under the scrutiny of heavenly light, the moral laws are dominant. Even the chief symbol of the book, the scarlet letter, has a meaning imposed solely by the moral laws. Another character originally having a natural tendency, Pearl, loses that tendency by the end of the novel. In all of these instances the moral laws prove that they are stronger and more pervasive than the natural laws. Works Cited Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. USA: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc, 1988 Katz, Seymour. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ÃÅ"Character,Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"ÃÅ"Nature,Ã¢â¬â¢ and Allegory in The Scarlet LetterÃ¢â¬ Rept. in Nineteenth Century Fiction. Ed. Blake Nevius. Vol. 23 #1. USA: University of California Press, June 1968. 3-17. Levy, Leo. Ã¢â¬Å"The Landscape Modes of The Scarlet LetterÃ¢â¬ Rept. in Nineteenth Century Fiction. Ed. Blake Nevius. Vol. 23 #4. USA: University of California Press, March 1969. 377-392.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Risk management has become an integral part of an organization. Expectation from the risk managers are increasing in order to meet up with the increasing competition and changes in the market. Currently the risk management techniques are having broader spectrum which covers operational, strategic and the entire enterprise besides being focused only into the financial risks. ERM (Enterprise Risk Management) is the need of hour and market is expecting the risk managers to possess more skill sets in managing the ERM. But this change is not being accepted by all due to various professional requirements (Bugalla Kallman, 2012). Dr. Kallman emphases that risk management is essential for all the organization and therefore clearly explain his thoughts about the techniques to be used by the managers in question form. The three important questions to be asked by the risk managers are: What is their current position in the S-curve? 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